By O. Lowenstein
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With contributions from major students from in every single place Europe and the U.S., this publication covers the most important parts of major pageant legislations from an evolutionary point of view. The leitmotiv of the ebook has been to evaluate the dividing line among safeguarding and regulating festival, which it does by means of reviewing the subsequent topics: * foundations of pageant coverage within the ecu and the USA * strategic pageant coverage * the evolution of ecu festival legislations from a countrywide (Italian) viewpoint * the block exemption of vertical agreements after 4 years * the recent know-how move Block Exemption * cooperative networking * mergers within the media zone * abuse of industry strength * strategies of pageant in quarter particular legislation * pageant, rules and structures coherence * potency claims in european pageant legislations and region particular law.
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O. Swiss Musmusculus; O O Apodemus sylvaticus; V V Rattus norvegicus; T ▼ Gerbillus sp. Gourevitch and Hack (1966) investigated the response in the 10-15 kHz frequency range, using an operant conditioning technique. Their re sults revealed a definite and fairly sharply tuned peak at 40 kHz, shown in Fig. 10. Brown (1971b, 1973b) showed a peak at 40-42 kHz and a slightly smaller one at 30-32 kHz in the gross IC response of all three subjects studied (see Fig. 11). There is, therefore, remarkable agreement between results obtained for cochlear microphonic, inferior collicular, and behavioral responses in demonstrating the presence of a peak at 40 kHz.
In each case, the high-frequency peak in the IC response was much greater relative to the low-frequency peak than was the case with the CM response. In Meriones shawi and Apodemus, of which a variety of ages was studied, it was found that weaned, but immature animals tended to show less definite high-frequency CM peaks at slightly higher fre quencies than mature animals. This led to a variation in the frequency of the CM peak, but the IC response of animals at variance in this man ner tended to overlap each other completely in the range of frequencies covered by the peak.
They are particularly remarkable because this very absence meant that the females answering the cries by going to the loudspeaker did not receive any reinforcement by being "rewarded" with a pup. They nevertheless continued to respond to the cries, though there was a decline in response when tests were prolonged. Sewell there fore concluded that the motivational effect of the cries must have been very strong, and seemed to have a definite survival value. This experiment clearly corroborates the results previously described on the hearing of Apodemus, but further than that, gives proof of the communicatory function of ultrasonic signals.
Advances In Comparative Physiology Biochemistry by O. Lowenstein