Read e-book online Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons PDF

By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

ISBN-10: 0792361016

ISBN-13: 9780792361015

This monograph is dedicated to the activation and diverse modifications of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes), i.e. reactions observed through the C--H and C--C bond cleavage. Alkanes are the most ingredients of oil and normal fuel, and for that reason are the vital feedstocks for the chemical undefined. however, those components are recognized to be the least reactive natural compounds. targeted realization is paid to the lately came across alkane activations in the presence of steel complexes, that are defined in additional aspect. as well as the reactions of saturated hydrocarbons that are the major subject of this ebook, the activation of C--H bonds in arenes or even olefins and acetylenes are thought of. The monograph may be priceless not just in the event you have an interest in the activation of alkanes and different hydrocarbons by way of steel complexes, but additionally for experts in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, petrochemistry, and organometallic chemistry. a few elements of the monograph may be of curiosity for experts in inorganic and natural chemistry, theoretical chemistry, biochemistry or even biology, and additionally if you paintings within the petrochemical undefined, commercial natural synthesis and biotechnology.

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REACTIONS WITH OXYGEN- AND NITROGEN-CONTAINING RADICALS Reactions of alkanes with hydroxyl radicals, which take place in the atmosphere under the action of irradiation and occur as crucial stages in oxidation of hydrocarbons are of great importance and have been investigated in detail [20]. 2 [20f]. Reaction of alkanes with nitric acid occurs as a radical chain process with participation of radicals and r [21]: 34 CHAPTER II (Refs. p. C. REACTIONS WITH CARBENES Singlet state carbenes produced in photo- or thermal decomposition of ketene or diazomethane are known to insert into the C–H bond of an alkane: Usually insertion of a simple carbene into the C–H bond of an alkane proceeds with retention of configuration.

P. 69) II. B. PHOTOLYSIS Analogous transformations of alkanes may be induced by light irradiation under ambient temperature [2]. When irradiated with light methane (which absorbs light ) decomposes to generate the following species ( is quantum yield): Then the following stable products are formed: II. 1. C. RADIOLYSIS The interaction of high-energy irradiation with alkanes leads, at the first stage of the process, to the excitation of the hydrocarbon molecule [3a]. Furthermore, the excited molecule decomposes to generate free radicals and carbenes.

7) and initiated via mechanism of the third type can lead to the formation of an -organyl derivative of the metal and the entire process then belongs to the first type. Evidently the unambiguous assignment of a process to a particular type requires a detailed knowledge of the reaction mechanism. However, at the present time the mechanisms of many processes have not been elucidated even in a broad outline. For example, organomagnesium compounds formed by co-condensation of magnesium and aryl halides from the gas phase are capable of catalyzing Processes of C–H Bond Activation 17 alkane transformations at room temperature [6], Thus n-hexane can be converted into a mixture of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with the conversion reaching 75%.

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Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes by A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov

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